PV modules with higher efficiencies and lower costs
This objective focuses on improving efficiency and reducing costs of PV modules. It covers the various PV technol- ogies that have already reached industrial maturity level as well as emerging technologies. These technologies are presented in four roadmaps based on the active material used and the number of junctions.
Higher efficiencies are of particular importance for several reasons:
Most PV system costs scale with the area, not only PV module costs but also those of many BOS-compo- nents. Thus, increasing the Wp/m2 or ultimately kWh/ m2 through higher efficiencies is a very strong leverage for reducing LCOE.
In a multi-TW PV industry also other resource con- straints become challenging, ranging from metal de- pletion to available production capacities. Again, higher efficiencies can help to alleviate these constraints.