ETIP Photovoltaics

Objective 1

PV modules with higher efficiencies and lower costs

This objective focuses on improving efficiency and reducing costs of PV modules. It covers the various PV technol- ogies that have already reached industrial maturity level as well as emerging technologies. These technologies are presented in four roadmaps based on the active material used and the number of junctions.

Higher efficiencies are of particular importance for several reasons:

Most PV system costs scale with the area, not only PV module costs but also those of many BOS-compo- nents. Thus, increasing the Wp/m2 or ultimately kWh/ m2 through higher efficiencies is a very strong leverage for reducing LCOE.

Increasing electrification of our energy system and the growing demand for electricity from sectors like heat- ing and cooling, transport and chemical conversion re- quire high performing electricity generation. In urban Europe, local electricity generation and storage can reduce transmission costs substantially but available area on buildings, vehicles, infrastructure etc needs to be used as effectively as possible.

In a multi-TW PV industry also other resource con- straints become challenging, ranging from metal de- pletion to available production capacities. Again, higher efficiencies can help to alleviate these constraints.