Hybrid systems including demand flexibility (PV+ Wind + Hydro with embedded storage + batteries + green hydrogen/fuel cells or gas turbines etc.)
Rationale for Support
RES systems are by nature highly dependent on the var- iability of the source that drives them. This variability characterises the generated energy resulting in a variety of problems to the system and the operators. At low pen- etrations of RES the inherent variability is easily absorbed by the generation systems that rule the energy mix and take the operational roles for balancing continuously the system without any problems transferred to the end users. In the case of CSP systems with the inherent storage, the cost of the system hinders its wider use due to higher LCOE price from the prevailing energy mix of countries.
While low penetrations of RES easily absorb variability, as RES penetration grows the variability becomes more pro- nounced especially in weak links and island systems. To im- prove on the above eventualities, developers have surged the possibility of building hybrid systems aiming to address the following issues:
- Improve on the variability by mitigating it with com- bination of the various sources hence cancelling each other to a great extent.
- Adopt the generation profile of Hydro power plants with generation coming from PV systems and com- bine it other storage/generation systems (batteries, green hydrogen, solar fuels).
- In specific locations (e.g. Northern Africa) combine the generation profile of CSP system with genera- tion coming from PV systems a hybrid profile that meets all the requirements of operators to be dis- patched. This system is much cheaper to generate and uses the controllable CSP energy to absorb any variability coming from PV systems.
Currently RES systems are lightly hybridised to gain the benefits of building on individual strengths. PV has been linked with systems with embedded storage to raise dis- patchability and lower the cost of the complete system building on the strengths of embedded storage and the low-cost availability of PV systems. Thus, systems are de- veloped combining PV with storage or PV with other RES to serve very specific projects. PV is mostly linked with storage to improve energy management in buildings thus gain- ing on specific terms of tariffs or with other RES to offer a lower cost energy to the system.
Targets, Type of Activity and TRL
The objective of this roadmap is to develop systems and solutions for which PV, as an integral contributor of inter- connected systems, can offer hybrid solutions that better meet needs of the integrated grid. The following targets are anticipated:
Planned activities for developing the required hybrid sys- tems and solutions based on PV as one of the primary sources of energy are the following:
- Action 1: Technical development of hybrid RES solu- tions for providing competitive energy using PV as one of the primary sources of energy moving TRL from 6 to 8 by 2025
- Action 2: Technical development of hybrid RES solutions in combination with external storage systems for providing competitive energy using PV as one of the primary sources of energy moving TRL from 6 to 8 by 2027.
- Action 3: Technical development of hybrid RES solu- tions using the flexibility of load including external storage systems and EVs for providing competitive energy using PV as one of the primary sources of energy moving TRL from 6 to 8 by 2030.
Possible KPIs that can be utilised for capturing progress in the above identified R&I fields are:
|Hybrid RES solutions to be developed for cap-|
turing the benefits of low-cost PV systems by
absorbing the variability of the solar resource
By 2025: offering an LCOE price of the
|Hybrid RES solutions to be developed using|
the added benefits of storage systems offering
combined solutions with PV systems
By 2027: LCOE price of the combined system
|Hybrid solutions to be developed using in|
addition the flexibility of load including storage
systems and EVs supported by the advance
features of smart inverters
|By 2030: grid to offer complete systems|
serving energy communities throughout the
EU at lower LCOE price from the country